American International Journal of Social Science

ISSN 2325-4149(Print), ISSN 2325-4165(Online) DIO: 10.30845/aijss

Presidential Management Styles and Advisory Structures: Formulating American Foreign Policy
Steven J. Campbell

Presidents play a central role in U.S. foreign policy decision-making; however, the foreign policy analysis (FPA) and presidential studies literature reach differing conclusions concerning presidential influence in the policy process. This research focuses on how presidential choices of management style influence the U.S. foreign policy decision-making process and decision outcomes. To do so, the study develops an Advisory Systems Typology to address how presidents influence this process. Four different types of decision-making processes are produced by a president’s choice of advisory structure and level of centralization. In addition, the study identifies ‘‘unstructured solutions’’ that indicate how presidential advisers and presidents choose to resolve policy disagreements, thereby providing an indication of the decision outcome. Decision-making processes and their associated outcomes are explored using three cases of security policy from the Nixon, Carter, and Reagan administrations. The case studies are constructed using the method of structured–focused comparisons.

Full Text: PDF