American International Journal of Social Science

ISSN 2325-4149(Print), ISSN 2325-4165(Online) DIO: 10.30845/aijss

IPAT- Fuzzy Model in Measuring Air Pollution: Evidence from Malaysia
Mohamad Idham Md Razak, Ismail Ahmad, Imbarine Bujang, Adi Hakim Talib, Zakimi Ibrahim

Air pollutants can be either gases or aerosols which particles or liquid droplets suspended in the air. They change the natural composition of the atmosphere, can be harmful to humans and other living species and can cause damage to natural water bodies and the land. Anthropogenic specifically due to the human causes that in this study, it has been identified that Population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Manufacturing Industry adaptive from IPAT Model is the major contributors to the emission of carbon dioxide. The time series data gained and analyzed from the year 1970 to 2011 to explain the relationship among the variables. From the time series analysis, the results are statistically significant and improved after transforming into fuzzy numbers and free form autocorrelation, multicollinearity and heterokedasticity problem. Hence, the information provided will assist the government in the future planning and development.

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